Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Form 2220 Summary

Instructions and Help about Form 2220 Summary

Oh hey their education taught sorry is getting a little psyched up with some Mastodon gonna talk to you today about two very important early modern European philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John walke now this one goes out to at one Republican seventy-nine who asked on Twitter hello I was wondering if I could request a video on Thomas Hobbes versus John Locke my test is coming up at the end of this week alright so there you have it so Hanson walk you've probably already heard about the Divine Right of Kings if you haven't check out my video lecture on that but you've likely been exposed to shot Bossuet however you say that it's French and he was a proponent of divine right absolutism now this isn't going to be about boss wit okay this is going to be about something different both Hobbes and Locke reject the idea of divine right and Hobbes is going to advocate for absolutism like also it does but it's going to be a philosophical absolutism where John Locke is going to advocate for constitutional government a limited government and he is going to use both philosophical and biblical justifications for his argument for constitutionalism so Hobbes and Locke are both going to give us two versions of a social contract now keep in mind that Rousseau wrote a book called the social contract but he's not the first philosopher to address this subject what the social contract essentially is it covers two things first of all what is the origin of government how did people decide to have government in second how much authority should the state have over the individual and Hobbes and Locke are going to sort of agree on the first part but they're going to disagree on the second part let's start off with Thomas Hobbes wrote a book called Leviathan in 1651 remember that Leviathan same as Mastodon second album which I'm kind of introducing you to little by little in this lecture and in Leviathan Hobbes is defending philosophical absolutism the idea that absolute government is not best because it's mandated by God it's best because well because it's best what Hobbes explained to you why now what is a Leviathan a Leviathan is a sea monster mentioned several times in the Old Testament and it's mentioned in detail described in very much detail in the book of Job specifically in job 41 now let me go ahead and read a little bit to you from job 41 with a little bit of macedon theme music you know mind can't style draw out Leviathan with a hook or his tongue with a cord well he make many supplications unto thee will he speak soft words unto thee the answer to all those questions is unequivocally no the Leviathan is not going to be caught with a hook and he's not going to beg you for things and he's not going to make requests wilt thou play with him as with a bird or wilt thou bind him for that maidens no don't try that I wouldn't recommend it lay thine hand upon him remember the battle do no more you may try to cross the Leviathan but you will learn your lesson and if you battle with that Leviathan one time you will not do it again now Hobbes is writing about this Leviathan because this is the sort of ruler that he would like to see the sort of ruler that he thinks is necessary in order to keep us from destroying each other Hobbs view of the world before government was a state of nature which Hobbes refers to specifically as a state of war a war of all against all those of you who have trouble with the English language and would like to see it translated into Latin here it is bellum Onam contra omnis a war of all against all but if you could write this on your AP euro frq or something like that that would really make an impression bellum hominem contra ominous and Hobbes believed that before government life in the state of nature in the state of war all against all that life was solitary poor nasty brutish and short five things solitary poor nasty brutish and short Ritchie what's that pony doing up there well this was my pony before a janitor erased it at the end of last year rest in peace my pony but this actually comes from an acronym that my students came up with if it helps you great if it doesn't whatever super ponies need back scratches super ponies that's a super pony right there so super ponies need back scratches solitary poor nasty brutish and short so the idea here is that we need a ruler who is strong enough that he is beyond challenge that people think I could not possibly mess with that guy because that is the only thing that keeps us from tearing each other apart that this Leviathan who is so large you can see him looming large over everything larger than the city and you see that his garments his chainmail is made of people and he's so big as to be beyond challenge and that will make us behave ourselves when we otherwise would not and it will keep us from destroying one another and this comes down to Hobbes's view of human nature which really isn't that far away from John Calvin's who said that man is totally depraved and incapable of really doing any good unless his heart is quickened by the holy spirit and yes that's kind of the inspiration for the Calvin and Hobbes cartoon these two philosophers one religious one political that tend to think like each other when it comes to human nature they have a very pessimistic view of who we are then again we might say oh well yeah I trust people I