Video instructions and help with filling out and completing How Form 2220 Governing

Instructions and Help about How Form 2220 Governing

Secretary of treasure deals with money so now we are going to look at our types or forms of government now when we talk about what kind of government a country has we don't often talk about the systems we've been describing we usually talk about the type or form that a government has after all most people wouldn't describe the US government as being a federal system of government but as being a democracy and even the word democracy isn't specific enough because America really is a republic and when talking about Great Britain we wouldn't refer to them as having a unitary or a parliamentary government but we might describe it as a constitutional monarchy however the British might also describe their government as a democracy so as we go through the different types remember that countries can have a few of these forms going on at the same time the type of government that a country has includes how the government operates who holds power and how they are organized and let's go back to Great Britain to demonstrate our first type which is a monarchy you're probably familiar with monarchies these are states that are ruled by a king or queen now this used to be a very popular form of government during the Middle Ages most European countries had what are known as absolute monarchies in which the king or queen held all of the power to pass laws collect taxes and fight Wars think louis xiv here of France or Henry the eighth of Great Britain who are Kings with absolute power but as the Enlightenment era swept across Europe monarchs were often forced to share their power of making laws with legislative bodies as we discuss with the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights this led to what are known as constitutional monarchies in a constitutional monarchy there is still a king or queen but their role is really ceremonial such as we see here with queen elizabeth ii who really doesn't have any power maybe some influence but no government power now as most of the monarchies today are ceremonial there are still a few absolute monarchies left like Saudi Arabia who just named new monarch King Solomon seen here with former US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel for Marquis power is hereditary usually passed on from father to the eldest son but again there's not many absolute monarchies left the end of the line from monarchies coincided with the rise of democracies led by the founding of the United States and democracy literally means rule by the people now how do people rule in a democratic society they vote the first known democracy was that of ancient Athens around 2,500 years ago Athens had what is known as a direct democracy and a direct democracy means that all of its citizens make the decisions and laws for their society now back in ancient Athens that meant adult men who owned property and weren't slaves although no countries use a truly direct democracy form of government today there are times where the people do get to vote on laws and policies and we'll look at those in a minute what America has is a representative democracy or a republic and do the Republic for which it stands because we don't have the time or the ability to have the people all debate and vote on laws we elect representatives to govern for us what makes this a democracy is that we vote for those individuals to represent us now as I mentioned there are aspects of a direct democracy that exists inside of our represented democracy and these are called referendums and initiatives a referendum is when a state or town will ask the people to vote on whether a law should pass or not such an example as we see here in 2008 Arkansas voters were able to decide whether or not to allow a state lottery 24 states in the u.s. also allow citizens to initiate laws themselves initiatives are when the people start or initiate an idea for a law we covered how the state of Florida allows its electorate to initiate their own amendments so as you see although many countries including the United States have a representative to ah Chrissy or Republic the spirit of direct democracy lives on now during the late 1800s as what was called the Industrial Revolution took hold some people felt that the government wasn't doing enough to protect the poor working-class people and a new idea for a system of government began to rise called socialism socialism is pretty complex as it can be but the form of government and ideology a cultural system and different political parties now it's hard to talk about socialism without looking at the economic system of capitalism where buying and selling decides the direction of economy and also the term socialism has come to mean many different things to different countries and governments so we are going to try to keep it basic originally the idea was that a society in general would share the means of production means of production is how you build or sell things socialism has developed into the idea that governments should help control parts of the economy where inequalities affect a large portion of the population kind of the idea that the wealth of a society should be shared with everyone today when we talk about socialism very often it means welfare programs that provide things like free health care and education Canada's system of free health care would be an example of a socialist program some extreme examples of socialism would be China in which the government owns many businesses and has a lot of control over the economy but often socialism is associated with Scandinavian countries like Finland and Denmark and Sweden which provide free education and health care to all of its citizens