Video instructions and help with filling out and completing How Form 2220 Organizations

Instructions and Help about How Form 2220 Organizations

Hi welcome back to our series on qualitative research methods I'm Leslie curry from the Yale School of Public Health and this module is on a major qualitative study design focus groups just a brief overview of the modules the goal is to enhance our capacity to conceptualize design and conduct qualitative research in the Health Sciences there are total of six modules in this series and this module examines the major qualitative study design focus groups so what is a focus group in this picture you see a group of individuals sitting in a circle in a room and some conversation happening a focus group is a group of people with certain characteristics who generate narrative data in a focused discussion the interaction and the group dynamics are really essential the interaction among individuals can do several things it can widen the range of responses we're hearing from a range of individuals with a common experience but of course different individual perspectives and views the group dynamics can activate forgotten details hearing someone recount a story of their experience might help another remember you know this happened to me and the group exchange can also release inhibitions can make people feel comfortable in describing their experience with a particular phenomenon focus groups can be useful for a number of kinds of topics and the Health Sciences the first characterizing social and cultural norms around a given health area health behavior or type of healthcare delivery focus groups can be useful for sharing and comparing really like this phrase by David Morgan who's the author of the focus group kit and who describes sharing and comparing as the dynamic in the group where each member will offer up their perspective and in that context in the discussion comparing their experience with with others in the room this can generate insights that wouldn't be possible on in a one-on-one exchange focus groups can reveal how people talk about an issue because people are sitting around a table and exchanging amongst themselves the researcher moderator can listen and learn the kinds of language people use their intonation their views about a given issue focus groups can also be useful for exploring potentially sensitive topics we mentioned this in the individual interview module as well and so it really is dependent on the particular topic and the respondent group that you'll be working with to determine whether or not individual one-on-one interview format would be most appropriate or whether a group format is most appropriate given your topic so a few a few minutes on designing focus group studies what do they look like well there are some standards for the group size and number in focus groups so the principle one in terms of group size is that you want to have five to ten participants per group fewer than five typically the dynamics are flatter there isn't as much momentum in the group maybe not as much speak and freedom when you have small group exchange and more than ten participants it is very difficult for the moderator to keep the discussion moving flowing well and for each participant to have enough time to express substantively their view on a given topic so the range of five to ten is a guide guideline and the second guideline is the number of focus groups per strata we typically recommend having three to five groups per strata so just a minute on stratification if you determine that a given topic may generate some tension or difficulty if it's addressed say with a group of mixed gender you may decide that it's important to have focus groups of with all women and a separate set of focus groups with all men and if that occurs you need to be sure that you kind three groups a minimum of three groups of women and a minimum of three groups of men so group composition attention to group composition really very critical there are a number of ways we can think about assembling focus groups and they really depend in great to great lengths on the nature of the question that you're asking so several considerations we want to avoid power differentials in the room among individuals so for instance if you were conducting a study about culture change in nursing homes the pioneering effort to individualize care and nursing homes by which residents express their needs and certified nurse assistants and nurse aides are free to deviate from schedules in order to respond to a resident preference or need you would want to be mindful of having a focus group with the certified nursing assistants or Nurse Aides together with for instance the charge nurse or the nursing home administrator you could imagine that the dynamic in that room would really could really inhibit free exchange so be mindful of power differentials in the room thinking about homogeneity and heterogeneity in the group how alike do you want the group to be and how different do you want the group to be we're looking for some diversity so that you have a range of opinions and yet you don't want to want to also have homogeneity or similarity in the group so that there is enough common ground to share and compare strangers versus acquaintances is another consideration the composition of groups are you interested in having people who have never had an exchange with one another or is it more appropriate in a given circumstance to have acquaintances those who have some familiarity with each other experts and novices are we looking to talk to experts in a given area who have deep knowledge of a phenomenon or are we looking for more naive view and then stratifying by these saline characteristics as I mentioned it may be gender in a given group where you want to pay attention to those potential dynamics and create separate strata for those groups data collection I