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Video instructions and help with filling out and completing How Form 2220 Preceding

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Elam Elam ight halton thei Sumerian NIM machi was an ancient pre Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran stretching from the lowlands of what is now Caza Stan and Ilam province as well as a small part of southern Iraq the modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration Elam along with the later Akkadian Elam - and the Elam I'd haul Timothy Elamites states were among the leading political forces of the ancient Near East in classical literature Elam was also known as susiana which is a name derived from its capital Susa Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period Copper Age the emergence of written records from around 3,000 BC also parallels Sumerian history where slightly earlier records have been found in the old the elamite period middle Bronze Age Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian Plateau centered in on Shan and from the mid 2nd millennium BC it was centered in Susa in the Kazakhstan lowlands its culture played a crucial role during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam when the elamite language remained among those in official use elamite has generally considered a language isolate unrelated to the much later arriving Persian and ironic languages in accordance with geographical and archaeological matches some historians argue that the Elamites comprise a large portion of the ancestors of the modern de leurs whose language blue-ray split from middle Persian topic etymology the elamite language Endon him of elam as a country appears to have been Halton thei EXO names included the Sumerian names NIM Maki and Elam the Akkadian alamou masculine neuter an Ella me too feminine meant resident of susiana elamite in prehistory Elam was centered primarily in modern kazahstan and Ilam the name cuz Astana's derived ultimately from the old persian who jia old persian meaning Susa Elam in middle Persian this became HUS susiana and in modern Persian xuz compounded with the top endemic suffix tan place you topic geography in geographical terms susiana basically represents the Iranian province of Khuzestan around the river karoon in ancient times several names were used to describe this area the great ancient geographer ptolemy was the earliest to call the area susiana referring to the country around Susa another ancient geographer strabo viewed Elam and susiana as two different geographical regions he referred to Elam land of the LMI as primarily the highland area of kazakhstan disagreements over the location also exist in the jewish historical sources says daniel teapots some ancient sources draw a distinction between Elam as the highland area of Khuzestan and susiana as the lowland area yet in other ancient sources Elam and susiana seem equivalent the uncertainty in this area extends also to modern scholarship since the discovery of ancient on Shan and the realization of its great importance in Elam I'd history the definitions were changed again some modern scholars argued that the center of Elam lay it on Shan and in the highlands around it and not at Susa in law and Khuzestan pots disagree suggesting that the term Elam was primarily constructed by the Mesopotamians to describe the area in general terms without referring specifically either to the lowlanders or the Highlanders Elam is not an Iranian term and has no relationship to the conception which the peoples of Highland Iran had of themselves they were an tonight's maar Hessians shamash qian's Zab Shelley ins Shara humans Allah Nights etc that unshunned played a leading role in the political affairs of the various Highland groups inhabited south western Iran is clear but to argue that on Shawna's coterminous with Elemis to misunderstand the artificiality and indeed the alienness of Elam as a construct imposed from without on the peoples of the south western highlands of the Zagros mountain range the coast of FOSS and the alluvial plain drained by the karoon Karka river system history knowledge of elamite history remains largely fragmentary reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian sources the history of Elam is conventionally divided into three periods spanning more than two millennia the period before the first Elam I'd period is known as the proto-elamite period proto-elamite C 3200 C 2700 BC proto-elamite script in Susa old elamite period C 2700 C 1600 BC earliest documents until the 'party dynasty middle elamite period C 1500 C 1100 BC Anza night dynasty until the Babylonian invasion of Susa neo elamite period C 1100 to 540 BC characterized a Syrian and median influence 539 BC marks the beginning of the Achaemenid period topic proto-elamite proto-elamite civilization grew up east of the Tigris and Euphrates alluvial Plains it was a combination of the lowlands in the immediate highland areas to the north and east at least three proto-elamite states merged to form helium on Shan modern Kazakhstan province a win' modern Lauriston province and shamash key modern Kerman references to a1 are generally older than those two on Shan and some scholars suggest that both states encompassed the same territory in different eras see Hanson encyclopedia iranica to this course xu siena modern kazahstan was periodically annexed and broken off in addition some proto-elamite sites are found well outside this area spread out on the iranian plateau such as war Akshay clck now his suburb of the modern city of Kishan and dureth Tinkerman province the state of Elam was formed from these lesser states as a response to invasion from Sumer during the old elamite period Elamites strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region traditionally this was done through a federated governmental structure the protocol might city of Susa was founded around 4000 BC in the watershed of the river karoon it is considered to be the site of proto-elamite cultural formation during its early history it.

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