Video instructions and help with filling out and completing How Form 2220 Reduction

Instructions and Help about How Form 2220 Reduction

In this video we're going to talk about oxidizing agents and reducing agents we're going to learn what they are what they do and how to identify them in chemical equations so if we're talking about oxidizing agents and reducing agents let's just refresh our memory about what oxidizing and reducing okay so oxidation is a loss of electrons and reduction is a gain of electrons I got a diagram here and we've got two things a and B maybe their atoms leave their compounds and there are electrons moving from A to B okay so a a here is losing electrons which means that a is being oxidized B over here B is gaining electrons which means that B is being reduced okay so that's oxidation and reduction but here we're talking about agents oxidizing and reducing agents so what's an agent well the word has a bunch of different meanings but in this situation an agent makes something happen okay think of like the agent for a movie star right the help the actor get jobs they help the actor get into movies an agent makes things happen for that movie star okay and that's exactly what oxidizing and reducing agents do they make stuff happen an oxidizing agent makes oxidation happen a reducing agent makes reduction happen okay so let's talk about the things that something would have to do to make oxidation happen to make reduction happen let's start here with oxidation what does something have to do to make oxidation well take a look at this diagram here we have a it's being oxidized it's losing these electrons but it's really important to remember that atoms can't just throwaway electrons I can't just chuck them into space and Adam can only get rid of electrons if something else is going to take those electrons away they have to give the electrons to something else okay so we can say that in order to make oxidation happen something something else has to take the electrons away from the thing that's being oxidized so let's look at what's going on here to allow oxidation to happen okay he's trying to get rid of these electrons and B takes them okay so B takes the electrons from a oxidizing it's making oxidation happen by taking those electrons away and we've said that an oxidation agent an oxidizing agent makes oxidation so B is the oxidizing agent it makes oxidation happen by taking the electrons from a so that a can get rid of them and so that a can lose them okay so that's what the oxidizing agent does now let's talk about reduction here in our diagram we have B B is gaining electrons but you just can't gain electrons out of thin air if you're going to gain electrons something else has to give you those electrons so that you can gain so we can say that to make reduction happen something has to give electrons where the electrons coming from that B is gaining well they're coming from a right a over here gives electrons to be reducing allowing it to be reduced and since a is making this happen by giving the electrons to B we can say that a is the reducing agent okay so B is the oxidizing agent it's it's making oxidation happening by taking the electrons from a a is the reducing agent it's making reduction happen by giving the electrons to B okay so we got reducing agent and sighs eh and if you look at what's going on here there's kind of a switch that takes place okay the thing that is oxidized the thing that loses electrons is the reducing agent and the thing that is reduced that gains electrons is the oxidizing agent okay the thing that's aweso dies is the reducing agent the thing that is reduced is the oxidizing agent okay so this is one way to remember that we get this kind of flip-flop but I think a better way to keep it in mind is remembering that the oxidizing agent makes oxidation happen by taking electrons away reducing agent makes reduction happen but giving electrons okay so this is an overall view of what oxidizing agents and reducing agents are now I want to look at two chemical equations where we'll figure out what elements and compounds are the oxidizing agents and the reducing agents so here we got this chemical equation we want to figure out which of these elements is an oxidizing agent which of them is a reducing agent in order to figure that out we've got to know how oxidation and reduction are happening in this equation we have to look at how electrons are being transferred and to do that we got to look at the oxidation numbers of each one of these elements so I have a whole bunch of videos on how to write oxidation nerves I'm not going to show you how to do that here but there are a bunch of rules that you follow you go through these rules and you're able to write oxidation numbers for all the elements in a chemical equation and these numbers show how electrons are moving okay so to figure out if oxidation or action is taking place we look at the changes in these oxidation numbers if oxidation number goes up oxidation is taking place if the oxidation number goes down reduction is taking place okay we'll start off by looking at calcium here CA CA starts off is zero on the side of the equation and then over here it's plus two okay so calcium is oxidation number is going up which means that it is being oxidized okay so calcium here is oxidized from zero to plus two which means that it loses electrons then on the other hand we have CL 2 chlorine or chlorine is zero here but it's minus