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Hi thanks for tuning into singularity prosperity this video is a ninth in a multi-part series discussing computing and the second discussing non classical computing and this video will be discussing what quantum computing is how it works and the impact it will have on the field of computing the foundation of this paradigm shift in computing is a quantum bit qubit for short has a unit of measurement for quantum information while a classical binary digit bit can only be either 0 or 1 a cubic and B both 0 and 1 due to superposition superposition is a property of quantum mechanics in which we're not measuring a system the resultant can be a variety or specifically a probability of two or more States however when we measure the system a final state must be adhere to an example most people are familiar with a Schrodinger's cat both alive and dead in the box at the same time until we open it up a more concrete example as the famous double slit experiment would show the wave-particle duality of light when firing electrons through a sheet with two slits we'd expect that the particle would go through one slit or the other and produce light in line with the slit on the wall behind it and this is in fact what happens when we observe the result however when we're not observing no electron produces light on the wall representative of an interference pattern with an interference pattern being the result that would be seen if a wave say of water was to go through slits with the constructive and destructive interference producing the same exact pattern as single electrons going through while electrons however the result on the wall is determined not by interference but by Bayesian probability spread the probability that we'd find the electron had a specific point on the wall with higher probabilities in the center and getting lower as we move outwards in fact the electron actually goes through both slits and one slit and the other slit and no slits all at the same time and produces a spread another property of quantum mechanics is entanglement and which Torah more particles can have correlated final states when measured this meaning if one particle is measured have an upward spin for example and if there's an other particle entangled with a negative correlation then that second particle would have a downward spin this is what Einstein referred to as spooky action the distance you can create an entangled pair move them across the universe and they would still instantaneously receive information about one another for more information on quantum mechanics be sure to check out other creators on this platform such as frame of essence moving on now that we have a basic understanding of quantum properties how does this translate to quantum computers to represent a qubit multiple avenues can be taken the spin-up and spin-down states of an electron two spin states of a nucleus and an atom and the polarization state of a photon both bits and qubits scale in the same way one that is equivalent to two potential States two two four three two eight and so on however with bits in classical computers all those potential output States can only be computed one state at a time serial operation and quantum computers all states are effectively computed together true parallel operation as a sidenote quantum bits are represented using a block sphere with zero and one only having a z-axis value and all the other superposition states with only an X and y axis value n qubits translates to 2 2 n parallel paths of execution to highlight how important this is in terms of computing watch this clip on the power of Exponential's and IBM in fact played in the 1960s to highlight the power of computing performance this is an old story but it reminds us of the surprises we can get when even a small number like 2 is multiplied by itself many times k sharam of india was so pleased when his Grandpa's air sis abend are presented him with the game of chess that he asked bend our to name his own reward the request was so modest but the happy king immediately comply what the Grand Vizier had asked was this that one grain of wheat be placed on the first square of the chessboard two grains on the second square four on the third eight on the fourth 16 on the v square and so on doubling the amount of wheat on each succeeding square until all 64 squares were accounted for when the king's steward had gotten to the 17th square the table was well filled by the 26 square the chamber held considerable wheat and a nervous king ordered the steward to speed up the county when 42 squares were accounted for the palace itself was swamped now fit to be tied King sharam learns from the court mathematician that had the process continued the week required would have covered all India to a depth of over 50 feet incidentally laying this many grains of wheat end-to-end also does something rather spectacular they would stretch from the earth beyond the Sun past the orbits of the planets far out across the galaxy to the star Alpha Centauri 4 light-years away they would then stretch back to earth back to Alpha Centauri and back to the earth again so after seeing the scale of parallel operations a quantum computer can do how do quantum computers compute step one activate the spread the quantum bits required for the calculation are acquired and entangled visualizing this in a block sphere these entangled bits are in an equal spread of the superposition of all the two to the end states snipped to encode the problem the problem is encoded onto the system via quantum gates which we'll discuss later in this video

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