Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Who Form 2220 Preceding

Instructions and Help about Who Form 2220 Preceding

Elam Elam ight halt empty Sumerian Nym machi was an ancient pre Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran stretching from the lowlands of what is now coos estin and Ilam province as well as a small part of southern Iraq the modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration Elam along with the later Akkadian alam ii and the elamite halt mt Elamites states were among the leading political forces of the ancient Near East in classical literature Elam was also known as susiana which is a name derived from its capital Susa Elam was part of the early urbanization during the Chalcolithic period Copper Age the emergence of written records from around 3,000 BC also parallels Sumerian history where slightly earlier records have been found in the old Elam ID period middle Bronze Age Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian Plateau centered in on Shan and from the mid 2nd millennium BC it was centred in Susa in the coos estin lowlands its culture played a crucial role during the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded Elam when the elamite language remained among those in official use Elam I'd has generally considered a language isolate unrelated to the much later arriving Persian and ironic languages in accordance with geographical and archaeological matches some historians argue that the Elamites comprise a large portion of the ancestors of the modern de leurs whose language blury split from middle Persian topic etymology the elamite language endanim of elam as a country appears to have been halting t XO names included the Sumerian names NIM Maki and Elam the Akkadian Allah mu masculine neuter and ela me too feminine meant resident of susiana ela might in prehistory Elam was centered primarily in modern coos estin and Ilam the name coos estin has derived ultimately from the old persian who jia old persian meaning Susa Elam in middle Persian this became HUS susiana and in modern Persian xuz compounded with the toponymic suffix tan place topic geography in geographical terms susiana basically represents the Iranian province of Khuzestan around the river karoon in ancient times several names were used to describe this area the great ancient geographer ptolemy was the earliest to call the area susiana referring to the country around Susa another ancient geographer strabo viewed Elam and susiana as two different geographical regions he referred to Elam land of the LMI as primarily the highland area of Koos estin disagreements over the location also exists in the Jewish historical sources says Daniel teapots some ancient sources draw a distinction between Elam as the highland area of Koos estin and susiana as the lowland area yet in other ancient sources Elam and susiana seem equivalent the uncertainty in this area extends also to modern scholarship since the discovery of ancient on Shan and the realization of its great importance in elamite history the definitions were changed again some modern scholars argued that the center of Elam lay it on Shan and in the highlands around it and not at Susa in lowland Khuzestan Potts disagrees suggesting that the term Elam was primarily constructed by the Mesopotamians to describe the area in general terms without referring specifically either to the lowlanders or the Highlanders Elam is not an Iranian term and has no relationship to the conception which the peoples of Highland Iran had of themselves they were an tonight's maar Hessians shamash kins Zab Chileans Shara humans Allah Nights etc that unshunned played a leading role in the political affairs of the various Highland groups inhabiting southwestern Iran is clear but to argue that on Shawna's coterminous with the helium as to misunderstand the artificiality and indeed the alienness of Elam as a construct imposed from without on the peoples of the south western highlands of the Zagros mountain range the coast of FOSS and the alluvial plain drained by the karoon Karka river system topic history knowledge of elamite history remains largely fragmentary reconstruction being based on mainly Mesopotamian Sumerian Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian sources the history of Elam is conventionally divided into three periods spanning more than two millennia the period before the first Elam I'd period is known as the protocol amide period proto-elamite C 3200 C 2700 BC proto-elamite script in Susa old elamite period C 2700 C 1600 BC earliest documents until the 'party dynasty middle elamite period C 1500 C 1100 BC Anza night dynasty until the Babylonian invasion of Susa neo elamite period C 1100 to 540 BC characterized as Syrian and median influence 539 BC marks the beginning of the Achaemenid period topic proto-elamite proto-elamite civilization grew up east of the Tigris and Euphrates alluvial Plains it was a combination of the lowlands and the immediate highland areas to the north and east at least three proto-elamite states merged to form helium on Shan modern Khuzestan province a win' modern Lauriston province and shamash key modern Kerman references to a winner generally older than those two on Shan and some scholars suggest that both states encompassed the same territory in different eras see Hanson encyclopedia iranica 2 this course shushanna modern Koos estin was periodically annexed and broken off in addition some proto Allah might sites are found well outside this area spread out on the iranian plateau such as war Akshay CL now a suburb of the modern city of Kishan and Jaya often Kerman province the state of Elam was formed from these lesser states as a response to invasion from Sumer during the old elamite period Elamites strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region traditionally this was done through a federated governmental structure the protocol might city of Susa was founded around 4000 BC in the watershed of the river karoon it is considered to be the site of proto-elamite